Cost of all-on-four for teeth-in-a-day

How much does all-on-four dental implant cost?

As of 2018, our cost starts at about $13,500 per arch for teeth-in-a-day with all-on-four dental implants. This treatment and its cost are for patients who have failing teeth, bad teeth, broken caps and bridges, missing teeth and don't want dentures. The cost of all-on-four dental implant treatment includes required 4 dental implants, the surgical placement, and same day delivery of all-acrylic set of teeth-in-a-day for one arch (all-acrylic teeth as an implant-supported fixed bridge for teeth replacement)

In general, all-on-four dental implants treatment (also known as AO4) and most of the lab work is performed in-house for a full mouth of teeth-in-a-day. Nevertheless, in many cases when extensive lab work is required, the set of teeth is delivered in 24 hours.

Please note that our patients save on their cost anywhere from $5,000 to $8,000 per arch when all the treatment is completed in our office. Our fees are much lower when compared to a two-location approach, where both doctors from two locations would charge separate fees, significantly increasing the total cost of treatment.

We are looking forward to listening to your unique dental situation and help you get your smile back so you can eat and speak with a high degree of confidence. Dr. Max Arocha enjoys very much helping patients get their smile back with all-on-four dental implants. He spends several hours every week replying to emails, aswering phone calls, reviewing x-rays received in the mail, performing free exams and countless complementary consultation services.

While the vast majority of certified all-on-four clinicians in the dental implant industry take a traditional approach of using just novocaine local anesthesia during treatment, we specilaze in sleep dentistry including twilight sedation and general anesthesia to better serve our patients, expedite their treatment and lower the overall cost. We provide advanced anxiety-free service. US and International patent holder and medical staff at Memorial Hospital Doctor Max Arocha DMD have pioneered several all-on-four techniques including using advanced hard tissue lasers with surgical computerized 3D surgical guide protocols. We were the first one to minimal invasive place all-on-four dental implants, for denture patients, without the use of surgical scalpel.

all on 4 cost

Additional all-on-four cost depends on several factors including the system and type of teeth the patient may wants as a full mouth permanent dental implant-supported fixed bridge for teeth replacement.

These full mouth fixed bridges can be made out of zirconia or a combination of acrylic teeth over a titanium framework (known as hybrid permanent bridges). (Continue reading below for the different types available).

A zirconia permanent implant-supported fixed bridge is occasionally recommended for strength and durability. A combination of using permanent acrylic teeth over a titanium framework (often called a hybrid permanent bridge also known as a full mouth restoration with implants) is preferred for control, durability and repairability.

teeth in a day cost

Keep in mind that there may also be some additional procedures required prior to the placement of teeth-in-a-day with all-on-four to ensure its long-term success rate. Additional procedures may be required including controling any broken caps, failing bridge work and gum infection prior to surgery. In certain all-on-four clinical cases, when the patient's gums are in severe condition, Dr. Arocha works together with our in-house periodontist, gum specialist, to achieve a great smile by removing any gum disease including gingivitis and periodontitis all within 24 hrs.

In general, teeth-in-a-day over 4 dental implants often results in lower cost, making it more affordable, because it allows for fewer dental implants being placed versus traditional dental implant for full mouth reconstruction. Teeth-in-a-day treatment option is a cost-effective procedure for those people suffering from failing teeth, bad teeth and broken caps and bridges. Even people who have no teeth and are wearing loose-fitting dentures are great candidates.

We pride ourselves in utilizing dental implants that are backed by research and, as our dental implant quality standard, we only use high-grade titanium that are FDA approved.

All of our dental prosthesis parts and materials are made in USA dental lab including acrylic teeth, zirconia teeth, and titanium bars. Our fixed dental bridges custom made are white natural looking in color to match your natural teeth. Each tooth is meticulously positioned to give you a natural-looking appearance to compliment your face with a great smile.

You would spend approximately one-hour one-on-one with Dr. Arocha. Teeth-in-a-day consultation is all about listening to your unique dental situation and the history of your teeth and gums. In addition to comprehensively and effectively going over details of your CT scan including addressing all aspects of your teeth condition and smile.

Since his hospital implant training in Pennsylvania, hundreds of dental implant surgeries, for 15 years, has been performed by Dr. Max Arocha DMD.

teeth-in-a-day costWe have intravenous moderate (IV) sedation (know asTwilight Anesthesia) and general anesthesia available for all teeth-in-a-day over 4 dental implant treatment. Our dental implant treatment starts with a free consultation. At this complimentary consultation, you would be exam by Dr. Max Arocha who has the clinical experience of performing this type of dental implant surgeries (4 dental implant placement for teeth-in-a-day). He is looking forward to meeting with you and listening the story behind your smile.

Dr. Arocha is passionate and generous about helping patients getting their smile back. Along with his extensive training in oral implantology and dental lasers, Dr. Arocha possesses a unique eye for smile design helping patients look younger.

We offer free of cost teeth-in-a-day consultation & complimentary all-on-four 3D cone beam scan

Patients save $275 on all-on-four with this complimentary service. The i-CAT Cone Beam 3D dental imaging system allows us to provide a quick, comfortable, and effective dental imaging for precise all-on-four dental implant diagnosis and review. i-CAT dental implant features include:

cheapest all on 4 dental implants

  • 8 and 23-second scan that provides enough data for a complete all-on-four treatment.
  • A safer diagnosis with less radiation than traditional CT scanners.
  • Increased comfort. Dental implant patients are seated in an open environment with plenty of space.
  • A more cost-effective imaging system. (Free for new all-on-four dental implant patients)
  • We can easily review and share the dental implant data with patients, so patients stay informed and are able to make educated decisions on their course of teeth-in-a-day treatment.

Our office is pleased to offer i-CAT 3D Cone Beam imaging for patients receiving dental implant treatment. Come and see for yourself what it's like to receive an advanced, patient-friendly 3D scan.

Recovery time and eating after teeth-in-a-day with all-on-four.

all on 4 recovery time

We prefer to perform teeth-in-a-day and dental implant surgery with our advanced computerized 3D dental treatment software whenever possible. Our advanced surgical computerized guide protocol from Anatomage® not only delivers high precision for dental implant surgery, but also allows all-on-four patients to eat, soft diet,  the next day. In addition to significantly decrease recovery time. Our implant 3D software is a highly effective tool that, in certain clinical cases, delivers minimal invasive surgery for a fast all-on-four recovery time.    

All-on-4 patient financing solutions. (1st choice)

all-on-4 patient financing options

The GreenSky ALL-ON-4 Patient Solutions® program make it possible for patients to receive dental implants treatment .

This Program offers flexible financing. The Program offers an easier way to pay for treatments not covered by insurance, or to cover deductibles. With more than $10 billion in loans, the GreenSky healthcare payment programs offers secure online application and trusted financing options to give you a simple and more affordable way to pay for ALL-ON-4 treatment.

Check your all-on-4 dental implants rate online with no impact to your credit score! Just click on the GreenSky logo or here and check your options in just couple of minutes.

 

Teeth-in-a-day and all-on-four payment options and financing. (2nd choice)

Should the cost of all-on-four for teeth-in-a-day prove prohibitive for an individual, there are options to consider that can put all within reach and save you time and money. We have found that LendingClub online application is fast and easy. It takes just minutes, with no impact on your credit score. Financial times have changed, and credit scores are no longer a main factor for patient dental implant financing. You can instantly review the loan offers that you qualify for, and you would not need to visit a branch to complete your application.

all on 4 financing

Our dental office is affiliated with LendingClub for teeth-in-a-day with all-on-four dental implant treatment. LendingClub can finance over $30,000 for upper and lower jaw full mouth teeth replacement. All LendingClub financing payment plans feature an affordable fixed rate, which means your monthly payment does not increase. In addition, you can prepay your loan at any time and there's not a prepayment penalty or fee.

With this type of teeth-in-a-day dental implants financing plan, patients can break up the total cost of treatment into a series of monthly payments. Click on the LendingClub logo above to apply online and check your options in just minutes. Please note: (Under doctor name you must enter: " max arocha ")

Types of dental implant fixed bridge prosthesis for full mouth.

dental implant bridge cost

Dental implant fixed acrylic teeth prosthesis over a titanium bar on 4 dental implants. The titanium bar may be hidden under the acrylic upon request. (Permanent hybrid fixed bridge)

 

dental implant zirconia bridge

Dental implant supported zirconia teeth over a pink zirconia base on 4 dental implants. (Permanent fixed bridge)

 

dental implant acrylic bridge

All-acrylic teeth over a pink all-acrylic base on 4 dental implants (temporary hybrid bridge for 4-10 month).

The cost of a full mouth set of teeth with dental implants for denture patients

Most traditional dental clinicians place about six to eight dental implants per arch for a full set of teeth in patients who have bad failing, missing teeth or dentures. When you factor in the cost of each dental implant surgery, related dental lab work and materials, follow-up visits and dental implants healing time before loading, it's easy to see that a fewer dental implants treatment save time, money and effort relative to traditional implant treatment that may cost well over $30,000 for one arch. Fewer dental implant reduces total healing time and cost. In certain clinical cases, you may be eating soft foods and drinking as soon as you leave the dental office with a budget of about $13,500 per one arch for permanet teeth-in-a-day.

A full mouth set of teeth repalcement treatment over few dental implants such as all-on-four dental implant treatment is specifically designed for people with teeth in poor condition, those who are wearing dentures and those in need of full mouth upper and/or lower teeth replacement. Qualified patients receive as few as four dental implants and a set of new fixed dental implant-supported replacement teeth, usually in one day. The major benefit of having fewer implants is how quickly dentures can be replaced with a permanent fixed bridge. This efficiency treatment concept saves time and cost.

teeth-in-a-day timeline

Out-of-state travelers for teeth-in-a-day for full mouth dental implants prosthesis.

If you are an out-of-state traveler flying over to our dental practice in Fort Lauderdale for our all-on-four complimentary consultation, we suggest to first contact Maria Sherman. We would like to first hear your unique dental situation and the story of your teeth and gums. We may suggest for you to send over a CT scan and/or a panoramic radiograph for Dr. Arocha to carefully review it before your arrival.

teeth-in-a-day picture

Since we have a significant number of people from out of state interested in having teeth-in-a-day with all-on-four treatment, we ask you to please be patient and keep in mind every case is different. It takes time and planning to come up with a detailed all-on-four treatment plan and being able to provide a full mouth set of teeth replacement with dental implants.

We offer the convenience of having teeth-in-a-day with all-on-four treatment in one office. Our patients save anywhere from $5,000 to $8,000 per arch by having the all-on-four treatment in one single location. We are conveniently located 10 miles from Fort Lauderdale International Airport. Hotels are walking distance from our dental office.

How long teeth-in-day with all-on-four last? Success rate of lower and upper jaw

The all-on-four treatment concept is a proven long-term solution with high survival rates and with up to 10 years follow-up in the mandible and 5 years in the maxilla.

A clinical study published in October 2014 in the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research included 242 patients with 968 immediately loaded implants supporting fixed complete upper jaw all-acrylic prosthesis demonstrated a high survival rate 93% at the patient level and 98% at implant level after 5-year of follow-up.

In general, a cumulative survival rate is high in both maxilla (upper jaw) and mandible (lower jaw) according to scientific evidence reviews

  • Mid-term 3–4 years: 96.3–100%
  • Long-term 5–10 years: 94.8–98.0%

A more recent study encouraged the use of All-on-Four concept emphasizing that when planning a fixed rehabilitation in the upper jaw using four implants, the quality of bone, the length of implants, the patient’s habits should be considered.

Does insurance cover all-on-four?

Yes, many dental insurance cover a portion of all-on-four. Our dental insurance claim specialists have the experience in working with most dental insurance to maximize your savings for all-on-four and teeth-in-a-day treament. We take all major PPO dental insurance such as Delta Dental, Metlife, Cigna, Humana, Guardian, AETNA, Blue Cross Blue Shield, etc. We have being successful having insurance company paying $2000 and more for the cost of teeth extractions in relation to all-on-four.

When it comes to full mouth teeth replacement with dental implants our dental implant billing coding specialists can submit insurance claims to the dental insurance company on your behalf and/or provide you with a detail breakdown of charges and updated 2018 dental procedure codes, know as CDT, to submit to your dental insurance company coverage.

Most dental insurance plans may cover at least a portion of the fee charged to add teeth to your dental implants. The best way to learn more about your insurance policy is to have Maria Sherman call and speak with your dental insurance company directly. This way we can help you determine the estimated out-of-pocket cost of the all-on-four treatment and assist you with a payment plan or financing if you wish so.

In our years of experience, many dental insurance company partially cover the all-on-four which means that you should process and send out a dental implant claim to them. However, some offices don’t allow you to claim the cost of the surgery itself. This is because, in spite of the health benefits that can be provided by dental implants, many insurance companies still classify it as a cosmetic procedure.

While most dental insurance questions can be answered easily and quickly, the question whether dental insurance covers teeth-in-a-day with all-on-four takes more time to get an accurate answer.

New teeth-in-a-day cost

We offer an all inclusive teeth-in-a-day approach that not only streamlines full mouth set of teeth replacement on dental implant treatment but saves you time. Our approach also makes the teeth-in-a-day with all-on-four dental implants treatment much more affordable.

We also provide single teeth-in-a-day. The cost for a single implant is about $1,700 plus the implant crown. The dental implant cost depends on the condition of the gums and jaw bone. The cost for two implants placement for a three-unit fixed bridge starts at about $3,200.

When multiple teeth are being replaced by dental implants, Teeth-in-a-day is indeed possible in most clinical situations. It is done when all of a patient’s lower and/or upper teeth are being replaced at once by dental implants and a permanent bridge within 24 hours.

candidate teeth-in-a-day

all-on-four candidates for teeth-in-a-day

The most important criteria for teeth-in-a-day candidacy is having sufficient bone structure in your jaw to accommodate the 4 dental implants. If you lack sufficient jawbone volume and bone density, the 4 implants may not be able to withstand the biting forces exerted by chewing and therefore the implants may not be loaded with your permanent bridge the same day. In general, and over 90% of the time, patients neither need bone grafting nor sinus lift due to the nature of the ability to place the implants where the available bone is located and then performing "dental implant angle correction" to allow for precise fit and accurate bridge placement for teeth delivery

all-on-four repairs

Damage to your teeth-in-a-day with all-on-four can occur suddenly and gradually. A broken fixed bridge may cause discomfort. This type of teeth-in-a-day may become damaged in a variety of ways including biting something hard, natural wear of 5 plus years and tear. When a broken and fractured all-on-four bridge, you need immediate care to prevent further damage to the titanium bar and irritation to your gum, lib, cheek, and tongue. In general, damage of this type of permanent bridge worsen over time and require more extensive and costly repairs. This is because over time a damaged permanent bridge may cause overstress a specific area, causing a break that may continue to worsen.

This type of repair is known as an "all-on-four revision" or "dental implant hybrid revision". We provide same-day in-house repair capable of restoring your bridge to a functional state.

Teeth-in-a-day and all-on-four experience

Experiencing life from having severely bad teeth, failing caps and dental bridges is emotionally exhausting for many patients. Our great satisfaction in serving our wonderful patients with their journey of having teeth-in-a-day for a new smile, especially when patient's tears of happiness is present, is difficult to put into words. Every all-on-four new smile experience has a story to tell...When we met our patients in real life, we ask questions to get to know them better. We listen to their past dental work, previous dental experience, and beliefs.

We try to unearth their dental and life story, and to tell our own as clinicians. The end goal is to find out if we can bring these patients back to good oral health and give them a great smile.In this process of knowing each other we tap into the underlying reason patients lose their teeth and why they have decided to come to see us – to get to be the very best version of themselves; a version they have always had within them that got lost along the way.

Dr. Arocha understands that emotional health and physical well being are intertwined. But it's not always clear how each element affects his dental implant patients.

We have found that most of our patients know that a negative emotional state due to the lack of healthy smile or having an embarrassing smile, wheather from having periodontitis or bad teeth from childhood, can have a correlating effect on the way they feel physically.

For instance, feeling depressed from not having the ability to smile in front of people can make a patient less likely to date, eat with confidence and maintain and find a job.

During their first initial dental implant consultation, our patients react to a dental diagnosis with a range of emotions, including fear, sadness and other emotions, and in some cases, low self-esteem. Patients are individuals, with their own unique set of life experiences and their own ways of coping emotionally with stressful teeth related situations. A great smile, like the ones seen on our Before and After photos below, plays a role in that having an understanding of one’s dental condition and smile, and a sense of accomplishment.

We are not professionals expected to be psychotherapists or counselors, nor to deliver direct mental health services to our patients. However, it is important for Dr. Arocha and his team to be able to recognize the emotional reactions of our patients for a variety of reasons.

First, while newly-diagnosed all-on-four patients may have access to their emotions and express them openly with Dr. Arocha, they may also suppress their feelings. Suppressed feelings ultimately have the same affect on conversations about a dental diagnosis as do directly expressed feelings. Occasionally, our patients struggling with emotions have a history of interaction with their former dentist(s) in a way that has not been productive. 

Our oral healthcare professionals, in spite of the challenges and the limitations, do play an important role in helping patients cope emotionally with a dental related diagnosis. For better or worse, patients may, at least when initially diagnosed with hopeless teeth, have no other emotional support beyond, for example, the members of our dental team. Family members may not yet have been brought into the discussions about their diagnosis, or they may not yet be ready themselves to cope with the diagnosis. 

While our patients develop an emotional support with our team members, often with the guidance and encouragement of their family members, if they are able to make an emotional connection early on in their diagnosis, they will be that much better prepared to cope as they move forward with their new smile from having teeth-in-a-day treatment. Our oral healthcare professionals can essentially pave the way for our patients.

all on 4 dental implats before and after teeth in a day with all-on-4

all-on-4 before and after teeth in a day dental implants

Dental implants treatment teeth in one day before and after

dental implants full month before and after

all-on-four patient reviews

You may look us up online for all-on-four reviews to learn more about our patient's review.

Due to privacy concern we do not often encourage our patients to post reviews making their all-on-four case public. When they do we try our best to reply to them to build patient trust as a verified healthcare provider. Since reviews are only valuable when they are honest and unbiased. However, we do encourage them to spread the word about our teeth-in-a-day with dental implant clinic.

The choices of  a single dental implant and 4 dental implants for teeth-in-a-day

The choice is clear only if you know how to choose a dentist who places dental implants when it comes to having "teeth-in-a-day" with "all-on-four". Many times the choice is neither clear nor easy. Especially when it comes to making the right decision for your smile based on the many options available.

With increasing emphasis on dental implants value and efficiency, quality time between dentist and patient has become more and more a valuable resource. In general, the dentist who is successful and experienced on dental implants spends significant time in face-to-face contact with patients gathering relevant medical health and dental related information. Performing a detailed dental evaluation work of your gums and bite is an important aspect of implant dentistry.

So what should you look for when searching for implant a dentist so you can have a clear choice?

  • First, your dental implant expert should be a licensed dentist.
  • Second, your dental implant expert should have education in dental implants.
  • Next, your dental implant expert should be experienced. Dental implants are not "one size fits all." They are complex, sophisticated dental devices, and you should expect your dental implants expert to have over five years of experience in the practice of implant dentistry.
  • Finally, your dental implants expert should be competent. At a minimum, when it comes of having a clear choice per tooth this means, the dentist from an implant center has performed a variety of treatments ranging from a single tooth to replacing multiple teeth, like all-on-four, on a number of different patients.

With this basic information, a clear choice dental implants may be achieved without great effort and with few difficulties when you begin searching and interviewing dental implant centers to find one that is considered a dental implant expert.

Our understanding is correct, and yes there are some potential risks to go with the definite benefits of an immediate and permanent missing tooth replacement with a dental implant. There are three parts to the procedure that the dentist and team members need to consider in making this dental implant treatment successful, which includes how you will look with your new tooth in the early healing phase. They are:

  • Removal of the existing tooth or root;
  • Simultaneous placement of the implant, which will become the root part of the new tooth;
  • Placement of a crown, which will become the part of the new tooth you see in your mouth that sits atop and connects to the implant.

There are a number of issues and steps to consider. First of all, it is quite critical that your broken tooth is removed very carefully so that the tooth socket — the bone that supports the tooth — is not damaged. It will become the receptor site for the dental implant. If any bone from the walls of the socket is damaged or lost, it could lead to unsightly gum recession or the possibility of having to end the procedure rather than risk a poor result.

Secondly, it is critical to place the implant so that it is stable and non-movable in the bone. The bone around an implant heals by fusing to the implant's specialized titanium surface by a process called osseointegration (“Osseo” – bone; “integrate” – fusion with). The tooth socket of an upper front tooth is cone-shaped, and generally, the only way to stabilize an implant is to penetrate the apex (pointed end) of the socket and affix it to the bone in this area. It's almost like placing a screw into a previously drilled wooden hole that is too large; the only way to stabilize the screw is by engaging the wood beyond the screw's original length and width. However, when the implant is properly and carefully placed, the bone will grow, traversing the remaining gap, and heal by fusing to the implant. Choosing the right-sized implant for this situation and making sure that it is placed in exactly the right position are both critical to success.- See more at http://www.deardoctor.com/inside-the-magazine/issue-23/same-day-tooth-replacement-with-dental-implants/#sthash.uwObLqxF.dpuf

Our understanding is correct, and yes there are some potential risks to go with the definite benefits of an immediate (permanent) tooth replacement with a dental implant and crown. There are three parts to the procedure that the dentist/team needs to consider in making this treatment successful, which includes how you will look with your new tooth in the early healing phase. They are:

  • Removal of the existing tooth or root;
  • Simultaneous placement of the implant, which will become the root part of the new tooth;
  • Placement of a crown, which will become the part of the new tooth you see in your mouth that sits atop and connects to the implant.

There are a number of issues and steps to consider. First of all, it is quite critical that your broken tooth is removed very carefully so that the tooth socket — the bone that supports the tooth — is not damaged. It will become the receptor site for the dental implant. If any bone from the walls of the socket is damaged or lost, it could lead to unsightly gum recession or the possibility of having to end the procedure rather than risk a poor result.

Those who have lost all of their teeth and are soon to have their last failing teeth removed, have several options for tooth replacement. One of the most advanced and reliable techniques is to permanently attach a dental prosthesis tooth to single dental implant that is anchored in the jawbone. Implant-supported teeth look and function just like real teeth, and are maintained with the same oral hygiene practices, such as brushing and flossing. They provide important health benefits. And while dental implants are relatively expensive, a newer procedure that also provides functional teeth on the same day dental implant surgery is performed has brought the cost down and put this great technology within the reach of many patients. Implant-supported teeth allow normal function of the whole mouth including the nerves, muscles and jaw joints. By permanently replacing missing teeth and lost gum tissues, implant-supported teeth restore the support of the facial structures (cheeks and lips support), thereby creating a more youthful appearance as well as the ability to function normally. This includes chewing tough foods, eating fresh fruits and vegetables, laughing, kissing, speaking confidently, and smiling with joy. - See more at http://www.deardoctor.com/articles/new-teeth-in-one-day/#sthash.U9uBVqaH.dpuf

Dental implant cost

As September of 2018 dental implant cost for one tooth is about $1,700 plus a customized dental implant crown, know as a dental implant cap, that screws directly into the dental implant itseft once it is placed and healed into the jaw bone. When the cost is over $1,800 for a single dental implant placement, it means the condition of the gums and jaw bone may need bone grafting, gum soft tissue treatment and/or extraction.

Keep in mind that no two patients and their customized dental implant treatments are exactly the same, so the number of follow-up appointments, procedures and cost of dental implants varies depending on the clinical condition of the treatment site. Unlike other tooth replacement options, dental implants are highly customized for your teeth and gums.

Keeping that in mind, the cost of dental implants compare favorably to other tooth replacment options because dental implants is a lasting permament solution that does not involved touching near by teeth. In certained clinical conditions, other teeth replacement options may be best. However, other options may apper to have a lower up front cost, but you may continue to pay that cost over and over, making it expensive compared to dental implants.

The total cost for a dental implant to replace a single tooth, including one implant crown, know as a cap, is estimated to be in the range of $3,000 to $4,200. However, the key for you to get the lowest possible cost is to send us a dental x-ray of the tooth or missing tooth via email. This way Dr. Arocha can review it and allow us to provide you with an estimated cost over the phone.

all-on-four for teeth-in-a-day in Plantation, FL, Fort Lauderdale, Davie, Hollywood, Cooper City, Coral Springs, Miami, Pembroke Pines, Weston, Palm Beach, Pompano Beach, Naples, Delray Beach, Florida. Zipcodes: 33324, 33325

Office Hours
Monday:9:00 AM - 5:00 PM
Tuesday:9:00 AM - 5:00 PM
Wednesday:9:00 AM - 5:00 PM
Thursday:9:00 AM - 5:00 PM
Friday:9:00 AM - 2:00 PM
Saturday:Closed
Sunday:Closed

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